Filed under: Alkaline Hydrolysis, BIO Cremation, Cremation Technology, Green, Green Cremation
Preserving the environment: it has been a vital part of Matthews’ culture for over 60 years. In keeping with our ongoing commitment to “Preserve, Protect and Educate”, we are proud to be the “Cremation Green” champion for the death care industry. Bio Cremation through Resomation is an alternative that protects our most valuable natural resources. It uses alkaline hydrolysis (heat, water and potassium hydroxide) to decompose human remains. Alkaline Hydrolysis accelerates the natural decomposition process just like the flame cremation. High pressure and high temperature (HP/HT) is used to destroy all pathogens.
Public safety is a core value for Matthews Cremation. It is imperative that legislation and/or funeral home and crematory guidelines require that HP/HT destroy all pathogens, prions and neurodegenerative diseases such as TSE and CJD. It is best to use the Center for Disease Control’s (CDC) temperature requirement of 370 degrees F and hold for 30 to 45 minutes. Unlike Matthews Cremation, not all alkaline hydrolysis equipment manufacturers meet this public safety requirement.
Today, we live in a world that encourages us to protect and preserve our natural resources. We are developing lifestyle trends that encourage behavior to lower the individual’s carbon footprint while at the same time reducing greenhouse gases and stabilizing climate change. In addition to lifestyle changes, we must consider what happens at the end of life and that transition back to earth. Environmentally focused end of life practices are growing in popularity and whether it’s a greener burial or greener cremation, we are all called to play a supportive role within our families and communities.
Since we at Matthews launched Bio Cremation (also known as Alkali Hydrolysis), I am always asked what exactly it is? Bio Cremation is an environmentally focused alternative that replaces the use of flame with the utilization of water, blended with an alkali solution of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH ). The Human body is placed into a specially designed cremation chamber where water and alkali are added, heated and gently circulated over the body, initiating the cremation process. The use of Alkali Hydrolysis is a proven technology, newly introduced into funeral service as an environmental alternative to traditional flame cremation. Alkali Hydrolysis uses 95% water and 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH). KOH is an alkali (not acid), inorganic compound that is used in numerous health and beauty cosmetics, soft soaps and cleaning supplies you would commonly find at home. This sterile process prevents the release of emissions (carbon monoxide, particulates, mercury). This more eco-friendly process offers distinct environmental advantages even beyond traditional flame cremation. For more information, please visit us on Facebook at Facebook.com/BioCremation and our consumer web site at www.biocremationinfo.com
President – North America Region
Filed under: BIO Cremation, Green Cremation | Tags: Alkaline Hydrolysis, ethics
Sr. Renée Mirkes, O.S.F. Ph.D. is director of the Center for NaProEthics, the ethics division of the Pope Paul VI Institute, in Omaha, Nebraska. Sr. Mirkes published a thoughtful article in 2008 in The National Catholic Bioethics Center.
The article examines the philosophical thinking of several scholars on the subject of the dead human body, the Church’s long held views on burial and its changing views on cremation. The article explains how in 1963, Pope Paul VI lifted the penalties previously connected to cremation by declaring that as long as faithful Catholics request cremation for valid reasons, i.e., reasons that arise from the exigencies of their situation but have nothing to do with denying the immortality of the soul or the resurrection of the body, it is a morally acceptable alternative to burial 
Sr. Mirkes then goes on to say, “There has been a change for the better in attitudes and in recent years more frequent and clearer situations impeding the practice of burial have developed. Consequently, the Holy See is receiving repeated requests for a relaxation of Church discipline relative to cremation. The procedure is clearly being advocated today, not out of hatred of the Church or Christian customs, but rather for reasons of health, economics, or other reasons involving private or public order”.
In regards to alkaline hydrolysis, Sr. Mirkes states, “A careful examination of the human body’s natural decomposition process after burial and the bodily decomposition involved in cremation reveals that the flashpoint of indignity with alkaline hydrolysis—specifically, pouring the liquid remains down a drain—is found in a similar form in the seepage after burial and in cremation through rain. Also, in the embalming process that precedes traditional burial, the blood and body fluids that are drained from the body are flushed into the sewer. Yet the Church does not forbid embalming. Furthermore, is burning a dead human body any less aggressive and, at first blush, any less offensive or violent, than the process of alkaline hydrolysis? And yet the Church allows cremation. Or, when we understand the slow, relentlessly destructive disintegration process within the buried body, is natural decomposition really any less offensive or repulsive than that which happens in alkaline hydrolysis?” And therefore, “The process of alkaline hydrolysis is, in and of itself, a morally neutral action.”
To reference footnotes and read entire article, please click here.
The three T’s of proper pollution control are Temperature, Time and Turbulence. Keeping these three factors in proper alignment are critical to the prevention of smoke and odor (i.e. pollution). Additionally, controlling these elements will go a long way towards higher efficiency and less maintenance issues.
Sustaining a proper temperature range plays a major role in the proper operation and efficiency of cremation equipment. Most cremation units are designed to operate most efficiently when the after-chamber holds a temperature between 1400˚F – 1800˚F. Above or below this range can result in unwanted pollution problems. Of course you will want to check with your manufacturer’s specifications to get the proper temperature range for your machine.
Equally important as temperature is the retention time. The retention time refers to the amount of time that the gases are exposed to the specific temperature. This will ensure total combustion of the smoke and odor from the exhaust gas before it leaves the stack. Environmental authorities throughout the United States and Canada have different regulations and most of these governing authorities require an after-chamber operating temperature of 1400˚F – 1800˚F with a retention time of .5 – 1 second.
The third T is turbulence. Turbulence refers to how much the air is mixed up inside the cremation equipment. It’s created by the presence of baffle walls and restrictions in the path of the exhaust gases. Without turbulence, proper time and temperature will be of little help and total combustion will not occur. If any one of the three T’s is not present or insufficient, a pollution problem is likely to occur.
Rule of Thumb
Hotter is not always better: It’s a common misconception that if 1400˚ F is good, any temperature about that is even better. This isn’t true. Temperatures between 1400˚F – 1800˚F are of a certain volume. When gas cools, the volume decreases and likewise, as the temperatures get hotter, the gases expand. As the volume become too large, it moves more rapidly through the after-chamber, cause the retention time to lower and consequently causing pollution problems.
A balance of all three T’s must be maintained to ensure proper pollution control and operational efficiency.
For various reasons, bodies sometime arrive at the crematorium in a plastic pouch. This can be problematic for the operator as the high BTU content in plastic can release a lot of energy, causing excess heat and smoke. Now normally, these pouches are 2–4 mils thick (roughly the thickness of a balloon) and because of the low volume of the material, it usually won’t require any special precautions. The case can be cremated with the same settings as those used for a cardboard container.
Thicker pouches of 4 mils or more, such as those used by the military, are an exception. Heavy pouches cremate at an unusually fast rate due to the high BTU content of the pouch itself. Therefore, it is necessary to cremate a heavy pouch the same way you would a large body, even if the body itself is of an average size. Use the timer settings and operating sequence outlined for large bodies. Following this general rule of thumb will help to keep your retorts running clean and efficiently.
One way to take much of the guesswork out of any case is to equip your retort with intuitive logic controls (IPC). Matthews Cremation Division offers the M-Pyre Advanced Control Panel. All you need to do is provide answers to the following questions:
- What kind of container are you using?
- What is the weight of the body?
- What is the gender?
- What is the case number of the day?
Based on these parameters, it will set up your retort for the cleanest and most efficient burn. Additionally, it performs a continuous self-diagnostics and will alert the operator if any corrective action is needed. For further information, please visit our M-Pyre page.
While not entirely new, oxygen control systems are another available technology that has improved in performance and price. Oxygen control systems measure O2 levels in the secondary chamber’s exhaust gases. Controlling O2 provides benefits on many levels.
First, maintaining proper and steady oxygen levels during the combustion process provide for more effectively cleansing of the emissions. Secondly, optimal O2 levels equal less fuel consumption. Reducing fuel consumption not only reduces money spent, it also further reduces emissions. Thirdly, tighter control of oxygen reduces cremation time. Oxygen control systems are still considered pricey by some crematories but advances in technology and manufacturing have brought it into the realm of possibility.
Beliefs and motivations surrounding global warming and the environment will vary, as will the ability to afford and install the newest and most effective green technology. A common goal we can all embrace though is to learn as much as we can in regards to the industry and the environment, steadily moving towards improving our environmental signature in the communities we serve.
New cremation technology is emerging in more affordable designs. This technology can decrease the use of fossil fuels in the combustion system and decrease emission from the cremation process – both are a bonus to our environment.
Matthews M-Pyre™ (ILC – intuitive logic controls) is an automated control system that doesn’t require any guesswork on the part of the crematory operator. Industry professionals know there are significant variables in the types of cremation containers. Not only do the materials differ widely, but the weight can range from 7 to 170 pounds. The same situation applies to the cases. We receive human remains ranging from 60 to 600 pounds and those same bodies have varying fat tissue percentages from 4% to 40%. All these variables (and more!) impact the cremation process and the decisions operators have to make.
M-Pyre only requires the operator to answer four basic questions (case number of the day, gender, weight and type of case) and the ILC system automatically establishes the settings for the most efficient production cycle. This reduces the opportunity for operator error which in turn will reduce the amount of emissions from the cremation equipment, another win-win for everyone involved.
The M-Pyre system can be added to the most new and existing cremation systems for costs that are well within reason for most North American crematories. For more information, click here.